Standardisation by law and markets, especially in financial services
Standardisation techniques are used in a very broad range of financial transactions: technical standards, model contracts, codes of conduct, accounting rules, and even experiments with alternatives to European regulations. Especially in the financial services field, where mass production and relational stability are essential, standardisation is an integral part of the existing framework and its regulation. The functions of standardisation are manifold and extend even to issues like mutual recognition. The relationship of these techniques with the legal system is a complex one, relying on a wide range of instruments such as contract provisions, explicit references in the law, default rules, good business practices, and so on. Enforcement is partly based on legal instruments, but also on the market.